Following paper is written in 1998.

The reasons why Biological Control will be accepted in Japan and additional required conditions

Tetsuo Wada
Tomen Corporation, Department of Agro Ecology, Agrotech Section
2-14-27, Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Abstract: The biological control should be supported by all the parties including
basic researchers, field researchers, field advisers, distribution people and consumers.

In Japan interests and efforts, among people of plant protection field except most
pesticide companies, to incorporate biological control in the conventional plant
protection is very noticeable.

Registration requirements have been regarded as typical obstacles for the
biological control but once beneficials were registered, the registration system
can even start to support the biological system.
..

Key words: natural enemies, beneficials, registration, biological control

Introduction
The Japanese registration requirement on beneficial insects has been criticized
since it may delay realization of biological control.
On the contrary, the registration system had helped field researchers to officially recommend biological control in the plant protection guideline book of each region.
It is now how the technique should be transferred to growers with support of local
field researchers such as extensions, cooperative advisers and regional experiment
station people.

Registration requirements
Compared with those requirements for chemicals, the required data are not
astronomical ones but reasonable to some extent.
This means it is more likely if the biology of the insects were well
elucidated, they could be registered in Japan sooner or later as long as they will
not attack commercial crop. Some criticized this last limitation because
Macrolophus could not be imported to Japan under this condition. The lack of
Macrolophus leaded to failures of whiteflies control with Encarsia.
And one failure may nullify 5 successful controls.
The reasons of failures are mainly from low temperature in the greenhouses.
Because the temperature in a typical Japanese tomato greenhouses is usually kept
below 10 degree celsius to have a higher sugar content.
Therefore the earlier steps to succeed in biological control should be as follows:
A. To recommend to heat up
B. To arrange release timing until the greenhouse air temperature goes up above
15 degree.
Because of high oil/gas price in Japan, it is difficult to persuade growers to
increase temperature only just for biological control.
The fact that a grower who can use heated water from neighboring power plant
always succeeds is a clear evidence of this problem.
Regarding the release timing, due to high temperature in summer, majority of
transplanting is around August through September and end of plant is around June-early July.
This makes early season release when plant is still small rather difficult because
the population of pest insects are high.
So far the best timing of release is around from March when average temperature
goes up above 10 degree.

Registration requirements for Beneficials in Japan
The Japanese registration requirements are summarized below.
1.More than 6 valid efficacy data over 2 years in Japanese regional experiment
stations
2. Establishment of guaranteed viable quantity control in Japan
3. Impact on other beneficial organism such as silkworm, honeybees and other
beneficials
4. Skin sensitization and irritation studies or evidence of no incidence
These are for arthropods and for microbials, the requirements are similar with the
one in the U.S.A.


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