Following paper is written in 1998.
why Biological Control will be accepted in Japan and additional
Tomen Corporation, Department of Agro Ecology, Agrotech Section
2-14-27, Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract: The biological control should be supported by all the
basic researchers, field researchers, field advisers, distribution
people and consumers.
In Japan interests and efforts, among people of plant protection
field except most
pesticide companies, to incorporate biological control in the
protection is very noticeable.
Registration requirements have been regarded as typical obstacles
biological control but once beneficials were registered, the registration
can even start to support the biological system.
Key words: natural enemies, beneficials, registration, biological
The Japanese registration requirement on beneficial insects has
since it may delay realization of biological control.
On the contrary, the registration system had helped field researchers
to officially recommend biological control in the plant protection
guideline book of each region.
It is now how the technique should be transferred to growers with
support of local
field researchers such as extensions, cooperative advisers and
Compared with those requirements for chemicals, the required data
astronomical ones but reasonable to some extent.
This means it is more likely if the biology of the insects were
elucidated, they could be registered in Japan sooner or later
as long as they will
not attack commercial crop. Some criticized this last limitation
Macrolophus could not be imported to Japan under this condition.
The lack of
Macrolophus leaded to failures of whiteflies control with Encarsia.
And one failure may nullify 5 successful controls.
The reasons of failures are mainly from low temperature in the
Because the temperature in a typical Japanese tomato greenhouses
is usually kept
below 10 degree celsius to have a higher sugar content.
Therefore the earlier steps to succeed in biological control should
be as follows:
A. To recommend to heat up
B. To arrange release timing until the greenhouse air temperature
goes up above
Because of high oil/gas price in Japan, it is difficult to persuade
increase temperature only just for biological control.
The fact that a grower who can use heated water from neighboring
always succeeds is a clear evidence of this problem.
Regarding the release timing, due to high temperature in summer,
transplanting is around August through September and end of plant
is around June-early July.
This makes early season release when plant is still small rather
the population of pest insects are high.
So far the best timing of release is around from March when average
goes up above 10 degree.
for Beneficials in Japan
The Japanese registration requirements are summarized below.
1.More than 6 valid efficacy data over 2 years in Japanese regional
2. Establishment of guaranteed viable quantity control in Japan
3. Impact on other beneficial organism such as silkworm, honeybees
4. Skin sensitization and irritation studies or evidence of no
These are for arthropods and for microbials, the requirements
are similar with the
one in the U.S.A.